"Caminolargo" is composed of nine instrumental musical pieces and two sound documentaries. The documentary sound pieces open and close the álbum bringing testimonies from the álbum production and it´s historical background. The nine musical pieces - two contemporary compositions by Juan Pimienta, (gaitero of the fourth generation) and seven compositions recorded by Goerge List (1964-68) of the master Juan Lara (composer, musician, lutier, founder together with his brother José and 'Toño' Fernández, the group Los Gaiteros de San Jacinto, first generaton). The nine musical pieces without letters, trace a journey through the main moments of human existence in the mestizo spirit derivedfrom the encounter of the maroon Afro-American peoples joined to Native-Amerindian inhabitants of the 'palenques' people settled at the Montes de María in the Colombian Caribbean during almost two hundred years, living free.

El Nacimiento (sound documentary, F. Cabanzo, E. Díaz, 2019)

This sound-art piece, a documentary short composition, introduces into the amazing creation-research, traditon and creative-cultural industries triad that lies behind the production and the background of this álbum. One can listen in order: Juan Sebastián Rojas – I.U. PhD, George List, Delia Zapata and gaitero de San Jacinto - Juan Lara. 

‘El nacimiento’ (the birth) emerges from a story narrated by Fabio Forero (Gaiteros de San Jacinto, second generation – GSJ-2G manager), interpreted in “caminolargo” álbum structure as the result of a triad between tradition, creattive-cultural industries technology and musicological research. An ICC triad that has made it posible to move this music through time and space, to make it arive to us: The american etno-musicologist Goerge List from Indiana University, using a Nagra III recorder, made fieldwork in Colombia (1964-1968). List was accompained during his fieldwork by an afro-american woman, the choreographer and folk researcher, Delia Zapata Olivella, sister of Manuel Zapata Olivella. She had already taken the “Gaiteros de San Jacinto” to play music during dance company tour through USA, Europe, Rusia and China (1954-1959). 

This intangible cultural heritage was brought from Indiana archives by Colombian musicologist Juan Sebastián Rojas – Indiana University PhD, he fought and achieved to bring a copy of List archives to the Colombia National Library in 2012. A digital copy of the files given by Rojas´s to a friend, arived to the hands of fourth generation gaitero from San Jacinto living in Bogotá, Juan Pimienta. Juan listened for the first time those musics. At that moment one can say the birth of “caminolargo” project happened, in 2018.

El Niño Llora (Juan Lara, gaita corrida, 1964)
"Yes," the boy cries "because it is a feeling that you have at least when a pelao (baby) is crying and then you want to get rid of that grief, and then what you want is to reflect that crying and it's a very extraordinary, because to hear a cry and get it out in a bagpipe was difficult. And then there were those contrapunteos (counterpoint, dueling) between Juan (Lara) and Manuel (Manuel) Mendoza. That is, Juan played "El niño llora" in his style and Mañe in his style, then there was that competition between the two of them. Then "El Niño cries" has two styles: that of Juan Lara and the one played by Mañe Mendoza. Touched by Mañe is more lament, more cadence and Juan's is more joyful but he has a lot of foil (adornment), Juan's was very fast, he played short bagpipes, he played crossed pito, that of Koguis from the Sierra Nevada. "

(Javier Fernández, telephone interview 3, 02, 2019).

"Well, Juan Lara was a very quick person with his mind, with the gaita. As well as being very fast with fingering (virtuoso with the instrument). Juan would hear a child cry (...) How many times in his family, or some neighbor there and transported those cries to the bagpipes: The child's despair and when the child is already going, the... cadence of the matter, all that transported him to the gaitas. I imagine that.”

(Juan Pimienta, video recording interview 29, 01, 2019. Min. 17: 44-18: 18)

 La Esperanza (Juan Pimienta, porro instrumental, 2018)
"Another (music) is dedicated to some lands that I left behind, they are there by the Montes de María, those lands are called 'Las Lajas' (The rock slabs), and in those slabs there was a small farm, a piece of land owned by my grandfather who raised me, a farm called "La Esperanza" (The hope). Then, one sometimes likes to evoke those childhood times. And once when I went there: those landscapes, the customs, the food from there, from those lands of 'Las lajas'. I have always had present in my mind the slabs lands, and the good memories that inspired me thinking about all those things who are now so far away. I decided to put the title "La Esperanza", dedicating this music to that piece of land that my grandfather had there, at the Montes de María. (...) back to the grandfather's days, because those were very beautiful times, (...) I always went back there on school vacations, in the year midtime, and at the end of the year also, we went back there, to gather and eat together. And it was very beautiful, the landscapes, everything, everything, the streams, the mountains. That´s it, one would like to go back there."

(Juan Pimienta, video recording interview 29, 01, 2019. 27: 35-27: 58)

Palo Alto (Juan Lara, porro instrumental, 1964)

"Palo Alto is close here to Maria la Baja (marsh of María la Baja). It's called Palo Alto Guayabal. (...) Yes because they said before: Where did you get those coconuts? At Palo Alto nobody reached them, because the palm trees there were very tall and nobody wanted to sacrifice to take the coconuts down. Those coconut palm trees were about sixty meters tall or so. People got them down, you know who? The people who lowered the leaves to cover the roofs of bahareque houses. There were veteran guys who climbed those palms up, and cut coconuts down. (...) Because there was an uncle of mine telling me that he had lowered the coconuts from the highest palm of Palo Alto, and that on the top the wind whistle left him deaf, there was a strong wind hitting up there. And they did competitions on those coconut palms, the one who reached the tallest more quickly won the coconuts for him. Those competitions were made for Easter time."

(Javier ‘Chuchita’ (son) Fernández, telephone interview 3, 02, 2019) 

Vicente se fue a bañar (Juan Lara, porro instrumental, 1964)

"As before there was no WhatsApp or cell phone, radio, if you were in love to a woman in the village, communications were difficult, they couldn´t be direct, they were forbidden. You had to achieve secret encounters, seeking moments that you had to wait, then you said: well, and then girls said “let's go to wash clothes” and they agreed. (...) They washed on a wooden table with a soap ball by the stream (...). Then three or four women agreed and those who were going to wash clothes already knew that the man was in love with the lady. But since one could not tell the old people, or the family, one had to wait to meet there at the stream, while the girl washed clothes. Because in front of the rest of the people there was no possibility for conversation. Or the guy worked with the father of the girl. As where we call ‘El Cedro (The cedar), ¿You know? and then in that context the man asked the girl: Hey, bring me a coffee please, then it was like that: maybe while passing the cup, one could touch each other’s fingers. Because there was so much respect you could not hold hands. When you felt like a grown man and competent you had to go with your dad, and ask for the hand of the girl. With people of respect then the visit was distanced. There were no chance for kisses or holding hands you had to wait to get to talk to the bare. (...) Then “Vicente se fue a bañar” (Vicente went to take a bath) was a story about a man who went (to the stream) and asked the girl he felt in love with, to stay there to be with him, and talk with him. And then one's “email” was a girl, the closest friend to her with whom you sent a message, to agree when they were doing an errand. And if someone asked you where you were going, then you answered: nothing I was doing an errand."

(Javier “Chuchita” (son) Fernández, telephone interview 3, 02, 2019). 

A San Jacinto (Juan Pimienta, gaita corrida, 2018)

"One (music) I dedicate to my homeland, it's called "A San Jacinto” (To San Jacinto). (...) and I put it like that, dedicating it to my own town because it is the place of a people that I have in my mind, the place that saw me being born, that gave birth to me, that shaped me in the gaita, a place of which I am very proud, very grateful. And that was the inspiration, remembering a lot of my land because I am a person who does not forget his past,a place where I was educated, by the gaita masters, I will always have this place in my heart. And it gave me the inspiration."

(Juan Pimienta, video recording interview 29, 01, 2019. Min. 26: 33-26: 41/28: 00-28: 37)

La acabación del mundo de Juan Lara. (Juan Lara, acabación, 1964)

"That's the end of the world is that those old people (José, Toño, Juan…)are very wise people, is that those bagpipes as we learned them and played the old that is no longer heard from anyone. Everything they have played, Candelaria, are from the same school (music tradition) and we as we have rescued what they did, because they are music that everyone does not know, they are not music to play around the world because they do not lend themselves to everyone touch them. You have to study them and you have to analyze them very well.

(Javier Fernández, telephone interview 3, 02, 2019).

"It's a running bagpipe that is like a happy lament. It was played in religious processions, on the street, when the procession ended. That's why it's called finishing. "

(Toño Fernández, cited by Ana María Ochoa, 2007, p.26)

"I see the future sad, I do not want violence to return again. Because we fall behind more the people, more in our investigations, and the town continues mired in sadness. Because a boom has come, and the party itself is joining us all. But I hope that the damn violence does not touch our shores again, because if it does not hit it again it will hide us, to resurface again later. "

(Numas Gil, personal interview, Barranquilla, 16, 09, 2018)

The passage of humans through the threshold of death, the veil that divides the world of the living and the dead. The mourning and the accompaniment, the liberation of this world to rest in peace. The transition from the crossroads of spiritual existence and the journey of the soul and the spirits between the material world and the beyond. The passage through the infra-world and the supra-world, light and darkness, the transcendence of existence, the journey through a long path...

La Maya (Juan Lara, maya, 1964)

"The Mayas, they are gaitas of lament, played by the gaiteros, who accompanied the deceased (corteo), they carried him (the deceased), they played and went dancing, drinking rum, (...) they called acabación finishing. The Mayas were played so that the death would leave in peace, ¿do you understand me? (...) Maya is more a lament and not everyone plays that genre. Gaiteros who plays that (...) gaitero who is going to play those acabaciones (endings) cannot be anybody. For example, touching the Maya (mesh) with Juancho (José Lara's son), sharing with him,is very touchy (emotionaly) that means having to be brave, ‘have the trousers tied tightly’. Because it comes with feeling and it is a thing of great respect."

(Javier “Chuchita” (son) Fernández, telephone interview 3, 02, 2019).

"The Maya (mesh) is a very sad, very melancholic theme. Maya means sadness, farewell. (...) Those are very old, very old songs. As they say around: when I opened my eyes, they already existed. Very sad musics that lead to nostalgia, adapted to the burials of our gaiteros (pipers), back in San Jacinto. Most of all to get them out of the house when the moment comes to take and follow to bury them. Then it was done properly, with one, two or three marches of those chosen songs and accompanied the gaitero who died until he was completely buried. Or if it was someone who liked the gaita songs and already asked in life that he wished to be buried with gaiteros. Then the Maya was chosen, it could ne any version because Juan Lara had four versions of Mayas. That is in the case of the Lara group, because Mañe (Mendoza) also had his own Mayas, he also had them ready (...) The Maya is the veil (mesh), the cloth with which the dead’s face is covered. I've heard that, there are many versions (...) that veil, that's what is said in the town. "

(Juan Pimienta, interview 29, 01, 2019)

Las Cuatro Calles (Juan Lara, gaita corrida, 1964)

"It's like in Holy Week the stops they make, with the bands that are playing, so let's say if Juancho dies then a band waits for him two blocks away (at the crossroads), playing there playing those music, they grab the dead and they take to the cemetery (...)

(Javier Fernández, 2019)

"Cuatro Calles (the four streets: the crossroads) is another sad song argument. Those are melancholic songs. Those are the songs that wrinkle the heart. (…) Well, I do not know why the old people called them like that. (...) Well, that terminology was handled a lot by old gaiteros. The first time I heard that term was by the master Nicolás Hernández, in the 95's I think it was, 1996: he spoke those cuatro calles (crossroads) to me, but as you said right now (the crossroads, are not only horizontally but also in vertical, to cross the world above and the world below, a transcendental crossing), but one was young, not in that boom of deepening in the gaitas, one was not mature for that subject, but yes, they were the ones who handled that. And I imagine there must be an explanation.”

(Juan Pimienta, interview 29, 01, 2019)

Caminolargo (Juan Lara, gaita corrida, 1964)

"It's a song that was played for the deceased when they passed away (acabaciones, endings). That's what Mañe Mendoza told us, he and Nicolás Fernández, they told us that when the person died it was a very long way. (...) The gaitas (gaitas corridas) were slower music that were played in the end of cellebrations and parties, at the end of the night, when the sunrise came. They did not end suddenly, they ended slowly, running out gently, that's when the acabaciones (endings)musics were played for. It was already, then it became time to go to rest.”

(Javier Fernández, interview 3, 02, 2019).

El asunto (Documental sonoro, F. Cabanzo, E. Díaz, 2019)

This sound-art piece, a documentary short composition, closes the álbum to share the testimony of Javier “Chuchita” (son) Fernández, and Juan Pimienta, at the mastering studios of Carlos Silva, in Bogotá, 2019. While listening the post-production tracks, the musicians talk clearly about the trascendental meaning of this phonogram, a spiritual matter that brings us back to the old masters time, and even further back, to the palenques and the mother world timeless space, a time and magic that talks about a serious and Deep matter, a matter of ‘asunto’. 

It also brings us back the last moments of the recording and production with the Gaiteros at the Audiovision studios in Bogotá in 2018, the momens of “caminolargo”. 



"Since I was born, I found myself in the neighborhood with a ‘gaita’, and she was in the backyard. 

And she was waiting for us there. The ‘cardones’ (vertical and slender cactus) that were in the ‘patio’, were later transformed into ‘gaitas’ when the piper arrived to cut them. 

And then she went towards infinity with an ancestral music.”

(The myth of the yuca (manioka) and honey, Gil, 2018)

”¿The origin of the Gaiteros de San Jacinto (Pipers)? (...) ¿Had Someone listened ever those five completely illiterate gentlemen, five peasants from here in Colombia. 

(...) Those same gentlemen got into the field, extracted all the raw material by themselves and built their musical instruments (drums, maracas, gaitas) and made their music. They still make it (…)”

“(...) ¿And where did those gentlemen extract those music from, if there was still no television, or radio, or anything of those things in the mountains? 

Look at all the richness they had, the pureness (indigenous)

They extracted the music from the song of the birds, of the wind. 

¿You know how they called it? 

They namd their songs, names of birds, name of trees. 

They came to make some compositions in gaitas, which had the sighs of people, they put the walk of their people. 

(...) Look how they got it all from nature. (...) 

(Rafael Pérez García, personal interview, 2017)

“Domingo López brought musical sextets to Chengue by the 40s, to entertain parties, with rustic marimba. The tradition of the sextets in the region ended with the arrival of the radio-recorders, the sound equipment, the pickup and the accordion music: Then the ‘picó’ (‘pick-up’huge stereo speakers), and that was better (…)”

(Paredes, UDN 2018. Inedit fragment - interview with Eduardo Porras, 2013.) 

"Then Francis (Lara – tambor alegre) about the drums, well he took it from his grand-aunt (José Lara). (...) Javier (Fernández – bombo de gaita), he learned it from his dad (Juan 'Chuchita' Fernández), yes because I have videos around there where his dad is working the tambora (lutier) and it is where old ‘Juancho’ is working the tambora.”

(Juan Pimienta, interview, 2019)


“In the Spanish dictionary the word cumbia, nor its derivation, or variant, cumbiamba. 

The third denomination, fandango, entirely castize, defines an old Spanish dance, very popular, and its ringing. It’s diminutive, ‘fandanguillo’, refers, exclusively, to the typical Andalusian variety of ‘fandango’, in vogue until the mid-eighteenth century. 

Some point out its origin (…) and believe that the Arabs brought it, in its primitive form, from Africa. (…). And finally, ‘fandanguear’ has become synonym of ‘jaranear’ (lark about, rollick).”

(Zapata - O. Delia, 1962. p.188)

"My mom who is 93 years old, and my aunt who is 96, you can look at them here (at home). They say that their friends hired them to dance in the villages, to brighten the festivities, to dance the ‘gaita (music genre), the dance the ´gaita’ circles, they went to San Juan, to Cármen (Department of Bolívar), San Jacinto, Majates, Ovejas. That happened a lot before Delia arrived, they already toured to dance. That's why one will find songs like 'Magdalena' by Toño Fernández, ‘Zoila’, before Delia, ‘Marinita’, ‘Candelaria’ arrived, before Delia they arrived. And those are the songs that when Manuel (Zapata Olivella) arrives and Delia (Manuel’s sister) arrives and they see that people sing and dance them, in the ‘plaza’ and live them, in the Street. And they see that when they go dancing they leave a perfect circle (gaita at night), like if it there would have been a circumference drawn by Pythagoras: the one that I saw, I saw it when we went in the morning after for school: perfect, drawn by the drops of candles… It is what inspires Adolfo Pacheco to say: "Sanjacintero remembers the noble dances of your grandparents , those who danced the gaita and left their mark on the ground". That, that's the perfect expression of a Montemarian being."

(Numas Gil, interview, 2018)


Even if nowadays it is a great issue about the conflict between the modern phonogrpaphic and internet market rules and the way tradition herited this knowledge and creation from generation to generation, the debate should help San Jacinto people to reclaim their traditional intangible and tangible heritage, finding new ways of integrating their heritage with the modern rules of creation rights and royalties. The reality shows that instead of registered music bands or groups, from the first “Los Gaiteros de San Jacinto” group setteled by Fernández and the Lara brothers core, numerous indviduals belonging to several generations have been interwieved joining together old, mature and young men from the Montes de María hills, mantaining alive the gaita and cumbia soul.

Gaiteros de San Jacinto, first generation - GSJ-1G: Juan Lara (composer, gaita macho, maracón), Jose Lara (tambor alegre), Antonio ‘Toño’ Fernández (gaita hembra, composer, main voice, group director) and later other musicians as Pedro Nolasco Mejía, Manuel de Jesús ‘Mañe’ Serpa, Manuel ‘Mañe’ Mendoza, Joaquín Nicolás Hernández Pacheco, Manuel Antonio ‘Toño’ García, Catalino Parra, Andrés Landero, Rafael Rodríguez, José Tobías Estrada, Eliécer Meléndez, Eliécer Mejía. 

Gaiteros de San Jacinto, second generation - GSJ-2G: Nicolás ‘Nico’ Hernández (gaita macho) Juan Alberto Hernández Polo, known as Juancho ‘Chuchita’ Fernández – father (main voice), Antonio ‘Toño’ García (gaita hembra), Gabriel Torregrosa - father (tambora, gaita corta or machiembriá, voice), Rafael ‘Rafa’ Pérez (composer, decimero) and others as, Joaquín Nicolás ‘Nico’ Hernández Pacheco, Adolfo Rodriguez (tambor alegre), Joche Plata (tambora, voice), Freddys Arieta (maraccas), Rafael ‘Rafa’ Rodríguez (tambor llamador, voice), Rafael Castro Fernández (voice), Jairo Herrera, Dionisio Yepes, part of them participated in the “Un fuego de sangre pura” álbum (Smithsonian Folkways, 2006, Latin Grammy 2007).

Gaiteros de San Jacinto, third generation - GSJ-3G: Juan ‘Juancho’ ‘Chuchita’ Fernández (principal voice), Rafael Castro Fernández (voice group leader) Gabriel Torregrosa - son (gaita corta & pito atravesao, percussion, group leader), Damián Bossio (gaita hembra), John Fuentes (gaita macho, percussion), Alberto Posada (voice, percussion), Wilson Fontalvo (tambor alegre), Carmelo Torres (accordion), Gualber Rodríguez and Javier Mutis García (Emecee, productor). 

Gaiteros de San Jacinto, fourth generation - GSJ-4G: Juan Pimienta (gaita hembra), Jairo Rafael Herrera (gaita macho y maracón), Francis Alberto Lara (leader & tambor alegre), Dangelys ‘El Pipa’ González (tambor llamador), Javier ‘Chuchita’ Fernández - son (bombo de gaita).



Tambor alegre (happy drum)

Llamador (calling drum)

Bombo de gaita (gaita drum)

Maracón (big maracca)

(F. Lara, 2019)


suarra, kuisi, chuana (native tayrona names)

gaita larga (female and male), 

also called:

palo cabeza e cera (wax headed stick)

pito e palo (wooden whistle stick)

chicote (tobacco cigar), 

gaita corta (short gaita)

and there is also:

flauta de millo (millo floute) – “a grand daughter of the gaita

(Juan Pimienta, 2019, Numas Gil, 2018)


This record doesn´t have lyrics, the reasons are many: In fact gaita musics used to be instrumental. During the conquest, and colonial period at the Montes de María hills, for more than two hundred years native people and afro-americans gathered and lived together to form palenques. Therefore spanish language and people were the last to arrive in 1776 (Moreno de Ángel 1993, cited by Gil 2002), and influence the Gaita musics with their chants, stories and poetry (decimas). “Caminolargo” interpreters, as gaiteros of the fourth generation, wanted to honour Juan Lara and the old people of the gaita tradition, they wanted to honour the spirit of the old men and their music, their cosmology. 

(Juan Pimienta, 2018)


The oldest native archaeological sites of the Colombian Caribbean are Monsú, Puerto Hormiga, Puerto Chacho and San Jacinto -2 (Montes de María) (4000 to 3000 BC), Rofinet (3000-1000 BC) and others less ancient such as Malambo (1000 ac), Momil (1000 BC), Palmar, Tocahagua (700 - 1500 AD) (Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1965, 1985, cited by Plazas & Falchetti, 1978). 

The main ethnic groups in the region were archaeological finds found in the modern toponimias of Tenerife, Plato and Zambrano (1500 - 1600 AD), while the groups named by the conquerors named in their chronicles are: in the foothills of the Montes de María (La Montaña) or María la Baja los Caribe, Bureches, Malebú and Farotos (De la Torre and Miranda, 1616), and speaks of other ethnic groups in María la Alta. Other references come from the Chimilla, Carib, Zenu, and in the Sierra Kogui, Wiwas, Arhuaco, Kankua, (Gil 2002, Plazas & Falchetti, 1978).

Since the days of the Spanish conquest in Colombia, Cartagena de Indias, a port founded in the bay, was located north of the San Jacinto Mountains (Montes de María). The walled city and fortified port became an enclave to export gold and other treasures torn from the natives and their lands to be plundered overseas. The conquistadores imported slave labor, and Cartagena became the main "slave trade port" during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This trade of African-American reactions generated the increase of the formation of palenques (kilombos, mambises, maroons), black people barricaded or isolated by moats and swamps or more closed mountains from where they instigated and attacked the city putting it in danger. They were the first free territories in America (Friedemann 1979, Fals-Borda 1976, 1997, Montejo & Rojas 1993).

Palenques of Tofeme (1525), Sanaguare (1633), Limón (1633), Catendo and San Miguel (1684) are already identified, all in or near the Montes de María (Friedemann, 1979). Benkos Bioho, captured and brought from Guinea Bissau, slave, warrior, leader (drummer), founder of palenques during the period between the Spanish conquest and the colony (La Matuna 1600, San Basilio 1713, San Miguel 1684) (Ibid. 1979). The effort of reordering and appropriation of those lands populated for over four thousand years, is entrusted to the conquistador Vicente de la Torre and Miranda who figures as the founder of populations, repopulating mixing and displacing indigenous population, white settlers, carrying slaves of African origin and subjugating freed slaves founding El Carmen de Bolívar, San Juan Nepomuceno, San Francisco de Asís (Ovejas) and San Jacinto in 1776 (Moreno de Ángel, 1993; Sánchez-Juliao, 1970)

"The Massacre of the Bananeras" is a page of violence and colonialism in modern times and democracy in the Republic of Colombia. The victims according to different versions, oscillate between 47, a hundred, 1000 and 3000 workers and 100 injured people.

"On December6, 1928, a strike started almost a month ago by workers of the United Fruit Company in Ciénaga, Colombia, culminated in a bloody military interventionin the plaza of the railway station. In October of thesame year, the workers of the United Fruit Company had asked fo rthe improvement of working conditions, (...). "

(Castrillón 31-32, cited by Connor 2009, p. 34.)

“(…) - ¡Throw yourselves to the ground! ¡Throw yourselves to the ground!” 

(García Márquez, describing “The Bananeras” massacre in Ciénaga - A hundred years of solitude, 1962)

Afterwards, during the last most intese violence episodes of the contemporary conflict (Pastrana and Uribe government periods) envolving regular army troups, paramilitary and guerrilla groups, plus narcotraphic dealers BACRIM, Montes de María suffered the most terrible massacres and attacks leading to an enormous exodus of thousands of forced displaced population. During those years, fortunatelly for some people, and even ironically for others; the group of Los Gaiteros de San Jacinto with the álbum “Fuego de sangre Pura” (Fire of pure blood) won for the first time in our history the Latin Grammy Price – best Folk album, produced by the Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

"I have lived in Bogotá for twelve years because of the conflicto we have in Colombia. Well, fortunately, with this art (gaita) life has given to me, I have been able to defend myself here in Bogotá, I have dedicated these years to the teaching of this art (gaita drummer) at the National University of Colombia.”

(Gabriel Torregrosa, personal interview, 2017)

"The ‘gaita’ (music genre), the music, has survived all violence, for one simple reason: it is very humble, it omes out in the poorest houses, the people and the villages of that tradition. When you go to such a village, look for the most miserable house, and look at the fence, and you will see that there are green ‘cardon’ branches waiting for the piper. And always the resistance is there: it has resisted the conquest, the colony, the independence between quotes, and has withstood all the violence afterwards. And some have stayed saying: ‘I do not move from here’. And others have gone and returned, they have returned. (...) When there was violence the parties in violence agreed, fifteen days (in truce) to maintain the tradition. And everyone said: ¿but how come? If ten days ago they were killing each other, and now they are tgether taking a drink: becaue of music. That is indicating to you that the sadness that we carry is a sadness of resistance and that resistance is what has saved many of us. (music) It is the one that has saved the people. (...) The genuine is protected by the same people. Because that native, that simple man, that ‘being’ that in his explanation and in his poverty, in his misery, is narrating a metaphysics of existence. (...) In other words, it is like a skin flower that occurs in situations. That's why they say that when it (the violence) will be over, and people Will be erased by cement, that is what Will be left, the ‘gaita’. "

(Numas Gil, interview, 2018)

“Fenómenos que también están asociados a otra dinámica que alerta a las autoridades: el desplazamiento forzado. Según cifras de la Defensoría, durante 2018 hubo un incremento en el número de eventos de desplazamiento masivo frente a 2017, pasando de 51 a 95 casos. En total la afectación alcanzó a 33.127 personas, siendo Norte de Santander, Nariño, Antioquia y Chocó los departamentos más afectados.

Eso sin contar con los riesgos de vulneración de derechos en los procesos de retornos de comunidades campesinas en los Montes de María, Bajo Magdalena, Sucre, Córdoba, Magdalena Medio y departamentos como Risaralda, Quindío, Guaviare y Caldas. “En dichos territorios persisten intimidaciones y amenazas contra reclamantes de tierras, representantes de organizaciones de población desplazada y víctimas, líderes y autoridades étnico-territoriales”, refiere la Defensoría.”

(Osorio-Granados, El Espectador, junio 13, 2019)


Requesting Juan Pimienta to give a message to close the álbum “caminolargo” he answered evoking the values of the tradition where he comes from, the Juan Lara school:

"Well, I'm very short with words, because I speak with the gaitas. But I would repeat the same words my master Juan Lara said, I would like those words that say:

“As long as my soul walks, I have to work on the values of my gaita, from whom I live.” 

(Juan Lara)

(…) And I'm telling them to you, for you to tell them to the world.” 

(Juan Pimienta, personal interview, video, min 49:54 - 50:20)


Bermúdez, Egberto 2002/2003 “Poro-Sande-Bunde: vestigios de un complejo ritual de África occidental en la música de Colombia”, Ensayos. Historia y Teoría del Arte, VII/7, pp. 5-57.

Cabanzo, Francisco; Díaz, Eduardo & Forero Fabio. 2019. Ponencia: Montes de Maria, gaita and cumbia. A trilogy of identitary resistance, adaptation and mestisage in the Colombian Caribbean Coast. Translucient Borders, (seminair /workshop) NYU – Tisch School, Abu Dhabi, February 2019. Francisco Cabanzo (ponente), Fabio Forero, Eduardo Diaz (co-autores) Universidad El Bosque – Bogotá.

Camargo, Jaime Eduardo. 1992. “Tambores o gaitas. La verdad sobre el origen de la cumbia”, en Luis Felipe Jaramillo (editor). Música tropical y salsa en Colombia. Medellín: Ediciones Fuentes, pp. 35-48.

Convers, Leonor y Juan Sebastián Ochoa. 2007. Gaiteros y tamboleros: material para abordar el estudio de la música de gaitas de San Jacinto, Bolívar (Colombia). Bogotá: Editorial Javeriana.

Del Castillo Nicolás. 2000. Historia económica y social del Caribe Colombiano. En Meisel Roca, AdolfoEd.) Santafé de Bogotá: Ediciones Uninorte - Ecoe Ediciones.

De la Torre y Miranda, Antonio. 1890. Noticia individual de las poblaciones nuevamente fundadas en la provincia de Cartagena. Cartagena: Tipografía Araujo.

De Urueta José P. 1890. Documentos para la Historia de Cartagena. Tomo IV. 

Fals-Borda, Orlando. 1977. Capitalismo, haciendas y poblamiento. Su desarrollo en la Costa Atlántica. Bogotá: Ed. Punta de Lanza.

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Gil, Numas Armando. 2008. Mochuelos cantores de los Montes de María, Vol. III: Andrés Landeros el clarín de la montaña. Bogotá: Kimpres.

Gil, Numas Armando. 2002. Adolfo Pacheco y el Compadre Ramón. Mochuelos cantores de los Montes de María Vol. I, Barranquilla: Instituto de Filosofía, Editora Guadalupe.

Holand, William (compilador). 2011 The Original Sound of Cumbia. The History of Colombian Cumbia as told by the Phonograph. 1948-79. CD: W. Holand.

Langaebeck Harl H. & Dever Alejandro. 2000. Arqueología en el Bajo Magdalena: un estudio de los primeros agricultores del Caribe Colombiano. En Informes Arqueológicos del Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia. Revista No. 1, Bogotá, Colombia.

Lambuley, Néstor. 1988. “La cumbia: un gran sistema caribe-colombiano”, en A contratiempo. Revista de Música en la Cultura. Bogotá: Biblioteca Nacional. Obtenido de http://www. Rev3_15_La%20cumbia.pdf. Última consulta el 20 de septiembre de 2016.

List, George. 1994. Música y poesía en un pueblo colombiano. Una herencia tricultural. Bogotá: Colegio Máximo de las Academias Colombianas – Patronato Colombiano de Artes y Ciencias.

Moreno de Ángel, Pilar. 1993. De la Torre y Miranda Antonio. Viajero y poblador. Bogotá: Planeta. 

Montejo Fernando y Rojas Sneider H. 1993. Asentamientos prehispánicos en el bajo río Sinú y sur de la Serranía de San Jerónimo (San Jacinto). Boletín museo del oro. Num. 34-35.

Ochoa, Juan Sebastián. 2016. “La cumbia en Colombia: invención de una tradición.” En Revista Musical Chilena. Año LXX, julio-diciembre, 2016, Nº 226, pp. 31-52

Osorio Granados, Marcela. 2019. “Alerta por violencia sexual en zonas de frontera. Radiografía de un país que vuelve a la violencia.” Sección País. En el diario: El Espectador. Junio 13, 2019. 

Oyuela Caycedo, Augusta. Dos sitios arqueológicos con desgrasantes de fibra vegetal en la Serranía de San Jacinto (Departamento de Bolívar), 1978. Fundación de investigaciones Arqueológicas Nacionales, Año 2, enero 1987. Boletín de Arqueología Vol. 2 Santa Fé de Bogotá. 

Plazas, Clemencia y Falchetti, Ana María. 1978. Asentamientos prehispánicos del bajo Senu Bogotá: Banco de la República.

Presbiterio. 1928. El testimonio del presbiterio. La masacre de las Bananeras. Diciembre 6, Credencial Historia # 190. Disponible en: Banrepcultural. Biblioteca virtual. (Visionado 26, junio, 2019)

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo & Alicia Dussan de Reichel. 1951. Datos histórico-culturales sobre las tribus de la antigua provincia de Cartagena, Bogotá: Imprenta del Banco de la República.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1985. Monsú: Un sitio arqueológico de la etapa formativa temprana. Bogotá: Biblioteca Banco Popular.

Rojas, Juan Sebastián. 2013. “Cumbia: The Construction of a Musical Genre in the Mid-twentieth Century”, en Archives of Tradicional Music. Recuperado en junio de 2013, de http://www.

Sánchez-Juliao, David. 1970. De la Torre y Miranda, Antonio, Fundador de cuarenta y tres poblaciones en la provincia de Cartagena y las sabanas del Sinú. Córdoba (Montería): Imprenta Orto.

Wade, Peter. 2002. Música, raza y nación. Música tropical en Colombia Nacional de Planeación-Programa Plan Caribe. Traducción de Adolfo González Henríquez. Bogotá: Vicepresidencia de la República de Colombia-Departamento.

Zapata, Delia. 1962. “La cumbia: síntesis musical de la nación colombiana”, Revista colombiana de folklor, Vol. 3, Nº 7, pp. 187-204.